Origin Of Oswals

The ancestors of Oswals were the Kshatriyas. In the year Veer Sanwat 70, Shri Ratnaprabh Suri the sixth Acharya of the 23 rd Thirthankara Shri Parshwanath.He awakened,as it were, 18 kshatrias and created a new caste called Mahajana and recommended and recognized 18 Gotras.This caste was known as Youvesh vanshi or Okesh vanshi, as they happened to reside at a place called you veshpur of Pattan or Okeshpur Pattan.

All the Oswal historians including the Jain Acharyas,Bhats and the learned historians in general are agreed at the basic story of origin of Oswals. But all have different opinions about the time-period of their origin there are three opinions in this regard which are as under

  1. Opinion of Jain Acharyas as contained in their Patavalies.
  2. Opinion of Bhats and Charans as mentioned in their Bahis (Memo Books)
  3. Opinion of the Learned Historians.

According to upkeshgachh Patavali, Acharya Shri Ratnaprabh suri held his ‘chaturmas’ of Veer Sanwat 70 at Youveshpur pattan, where he addressed the king, the countries and the public of the city and forthwith converted them into Jains. (Changing of religion is not a big thing, but to convert people from a violent culture/sect to a nonviolent one was a ral great historical achievement.) He preached that violence is sin, therefore, Yagyas and Havans are sins, because they involve sacrifice/killing of animals. In the same process process or transaction hoe converted their caste from Kshatriya to Mahajans. The meaning of Maha is elite and Jain is man they Mahajan means elite men.

Origin Of Youveshpur Pattan

The present city of Bhinmal Rjasthan is a very old city. In treata Yug this city was called by name of Ratnamal, In Dwapar Yug it was named as Swarnamal and at the time of lord Mahaveera, it was named Shrimal Pattan. At Shrimal Pttan king Bhimsen was the ruler.  He had two queens. Each queen had one son.The elder son’s name was Prince Uppaldeo and second son was Prince Sripunj. Uppaldeo was elder and was more capable in all spheres of activity than Sripunj, but Sripunj was the son King’s favourite queen, so the king desired to give the throne to him, hence one-day the king called Uppaldeo  and advised him to leave Shrimal-Pattan and establish a new kingdom elsewhere and prove his worth.

Prince Uppaldeo left the kingdom and proceeded towards Dhelipur (which is now called Delhi) with his faithful adviser Yuhad Deo and a few soldiers. King Sadhu was the ruler of Dhelipur at that time. When the king Sadhu came to know of the ability and of the desire of, he gave him a mare, along with his good wishes for success in future,. He also blessed him and ordered him to establish a new kingdom at a barren land. The fortune-teller declared, “The mare has divine spirit. You must establish your new kingdom at the place where this mare stops in order to tae rest.”

Fortunately, the mare slept for rest near the hills of Lunadri. Uppaldeo and Yuhaddeo desired to establish their new kingdom there, and named this place as Youeshpur.

When people of Shrimal Pattan came to know that their beloved prince had established a new kingdom named Youveshpur, they left their city and settled in Youveshpur, because Sripunj was not a good ruler at all. Soon Youveshpur became a grand city and came to be called Youveshpur-Pattan. It is said that at time this city was 12 miles long and 9 miles in width.

Acharya Shri Shyamprabh Suri

Acharya  Shyamprabh  suri was the fifth successor of Bhagwan Parshwanath the 23rd Tirthankara. He had many divine powers.One night he began to ponder over the fact that all sages right from Bhagwan Rishabhdeo the 1stTirthankara down to Parshvanath the 23rd Tirthankara had  ‘awakened’ the people and converted them from a violent to a non-violent creed, but after their departure from the scene the people again took to the cult of violence. The Sage would come very soon, when no Jains would be left at these places.

He invoked Goddess Padmavati and told her what was worrying him. Goddess asked him to go ahead assuring that she will help him by teaching him such miracles that the people would have to obey his desire.They would once the caste is changed, they would remain non-violent forever.

Acharya Shyamprabh Suri went to Shrimal Pattan. With the help of the miracles of the Goddess, Acharya converted the caste of Kshatrays and others and created a new caste Mahajan in veer sanwat 59.These Mahajan were named Shrimal .Then Acharya proceeded towards Pragwat-Nagar. There also Acharya got success in converting people to the Mahajan caste. Those Mahajans who were thus converted were named porwals.

Acharya Shri Ratnaprabh Suri

Mahendra Chud was the king of State of Vidhyadharas. His queen was Mahalakshmi. Their son was prince Ratnachud. Rtanachud was a learned prince having a grand knowledge of all subjects including the knowledge of many Mantras. One-day the prince was roaming in the sky in his aircrafts, At that time he came to know that a holy Acharya Shri Shyamprabh Suri was giving sermons at Mount Abu, so he landed at Mt. Abu and heard the sermon. He was so impressed with the sermon that he decided to renounce the world and became disciple of the Acharya. He went to his kingdom and secured the necessary permission to renounce the world and become the disciple of the Acharya. On getting permission, he returned and became disciple of the Acharya with group of 500 Vidhyadhars. IN veer Ssanwat 59 muni Ratna chud was promoted to the rank of Acharya and they named him Acharya Ratnaprabh Suri.

One night when the Achatya was sleeping, Goddess Chakreshwari appeared and advised the Acharya to proceed towards Youveshpur Pattan for speedier development of Jainism, therefore, the next day morning the Acharya marched towards Youveshpur Pattan with his group of 500 saints (disciples).

The people of Youveshpur Pattan were mainly Brahmins. They were adversely affected by the Jains principles.he Brahmins main income is from Yagyas and Havans, but Jains are against Yagya and Havans. In a Havan,a lot of insects and creatures died and hence, it was a sin, therefore, the Jains monk taught people to oppose this sin. When the Brahmins came to know, that the Jains saints are going to enter the city, they opposed their entry into the city.

At night the Goddess Chamunda, the presiding deity of the city, appeared and requested the Acharya that her friend Goddess Chakreshwari had sent her the message asking her to help them, but unfortunately she had forgotten to do so. This was great lapse her part and therefore, prayed to be forgiven. She also promised to do the saints some favour, so that they could enter the city in a respectful manner.

The next morning the Acharya ordered his disciples that he had to stay there for some more time, and so such there and rest must start towards Korantpur. It is said, that 465 saints then went away and 35 remained in the service of the Acharya.

The king Uppaldeo had no son. He had only one daughter. The princess was married to Trilokyasingh,the son Uhaddeo the Minister of the king Uppaldeo. The next night when prince Trilokyasingh was sleeping Goddess Chamunda appeared in his bedroom, and by her divine powers, became a snake and bit the prince.The prince died forthwith.

The palace andthe whole city fell into grief and sorrow. Everyone in the palace was weeping and people came to the palace for offering condolences. They were all full of tears.

In the morning, all proceeded weeping bitterly, towards the cremation-ground. In the midway Goddess appeared in the robe of a monk and said, ‘Why are you going to cremation-ground to cremate the prince who is very much alive! Having said this she disappeared. Every one was astonished to hear these words.The king enquired as to who that several persons dressed like that were staying at Lunadri Hills.

Then the procession procession proceeded towards Lunadri Hills. When Acharya and all the monks heard the Goddess had played some divine game. Jains shraman have to stay away from any involve themselves there in, they all sat for meditation. (Kayotsarg).

When all the people came and put the bier on the ground, the Goddess once again appeared and said,Our Acharya is a holy teacher, Acharya has many astonishing powers. If you desire to witness a miracle, then bring some boiled water, pour it on the right toe, and then drop the ambrosia on the dead body. You would be surprised to see that the dead regains its senses.

Immediately the boiled water followed by ambrosia was dropped on the body of the prince. Everybody was surprised to see the prince come to life. It was a real miracle! At once the voices of acclamation rent the air.The king and every body else, cheerfully and enthusiastically acclaimed the Acharya.

The king requested the Acharya to be his guest for a few days. Acharya and all hid 35 monks entered the city in a procession marked with royal splendor. The procession reached the palace gate. The Acharya told that he could not stay in those luxurious places, for they were not supposed to enjoy were removed from the scene.

After some time king. The queen, the prince and the princess all came to offer gold and precious jewellery. Acharya told them that they had renounced the worldly things and were of no use to them. Acharysa then told them about their mode of living thus they came to know that the shramans had not taken their meals for more than a month’s period. The king thereafter made proper arrangements for their meals. Then they concluded their more than a month-long old fact (penance).

Origin Of The New Caste

As per Upkesh Gachh Pataval Acharya Shri Ratnaprabh Suri gave first religious discourse to the public on the 14th day of Shravan Krashna Paksha of veer sanwal 70,(about 2461 years ago). This sermon was so impressive, that the entire audiance not only began to believe seriously but were also convinced that the real happiness lay in sacrifice, and that the wealth, prosperity, and physical pleasure are only worldly desires. They unhappiness at the end. The road to heaven is in renunciation, and love to all. They realized that before a child’s birth, the mother face a hellish pain in the womb. The pain is so dreadful, that one swears not to do any wrong thing in future again. However, after birth he/she, immediately towards sexual pleasures and enjoyment.

At that time 18 prsons present were so impressed that they desired to be Shravaks. The Acharya gave them the necessary Mantras and made them Mahajans.

Their 18 Gotras (surname) were named on the basis of their name, caste or work or calling. These 18 Gotras are as under:-

Tater, Bafna, Karnat (karnavat), Balaha, Morakh, Kulhat, Veerhat, Shrishrimal, Shreshthi, Shreshthi, Sancheti, Adityanag, Bhuri, Bhardra, Chinchal, Kumbhat, Didu, Kanojia, and Lagu-Shreshthi.

Hence the foundation day of oswals fall on the 14 day of shravan krashna paksha of veer sanwat 70. Every Oswal must celebrate this day as a grand festival. Itis the duty of every Oswal to go to Osiyan on this day and pay honour to and worship the Acharya Ratnaprabh Suri, Kuldevi Sachayaya and Lord Mahavera.

Kuldevi Sri Sachyaya Mata

There was a grand temple of goddess chamunda at Upkeshpur Pattan (presently know as Osiyan situated about 62 Kms. Away from Jodhpur on Jodhpur-Phalodi road. The temple was well know for its miracles (chamatkars). Every one in Upkeshpur Pattan used to worship the goddess. Even the king Uppaldeo was her devotee. It was the tradition that the buffalo, sheep or goat used to be butchered (sacrificed) for the worship of the Goddess. The people used to make offring of flesh of the victims to please the goddess. In Veer Snawat 70, Acharya Shri Ratnaprabh Suri was in that city. When he heard about this custom, he called the public and gave a grand lecture speaking vehemently against this sin. People replied, ‘If we do not sacrifice the animals, the goddess will become furious and may harm us.” Acharya advised the people, “Go to the temple of the Goddess and tell her that the Acharya had administered them an oath not to kill any beast for ‘your’ worship. We are helpless. So please do the needful.”

Then the Goddess became furious and in order to take revenge she caused a trouble in the eyes of the Acharya. The Acharya immediately understood what the cause of the trouble in his eyes was. He faced the trouble with equanimity. Three days passed and when no reaction came from the Acharya, the Goddess somewhat calmed down and went to the Acharya and blamed him for doing her wrong in return of good deeds done by her. Acharya asked her what after all she wanted. Goddess replied that she wanted her Karda-Murda. Acharya agreed to also remain present on the occasion when it would be offered. Goddess went away happily.

Acharya ordred the people to prepare Lapsi, Khaja, Prashad, and take one coconut with them along with all the items of worship (Dhoop, incense stick, sandalwood, saffron etc.)

At the right time, Acharya and the whole public, taking all these articles of oblation went to the temple. When Goddess saw no sign of a sacrificed, she became furious and demanded he Karda-Murda. Then the Acharya at once broke into pieces a coconut and said that, that was her Karda-Murda. Further, he urged on the Goddess to be satisfied with that offering and to hate blood. (There are evidences in poetic from in support of this fact). Then he said, ‘you had done a lot of good deeds in your previous lives so you got this highest yoni or class of a Goddess. Now as you are doing so much sin you might have to go to hell for these wrongful deeds. It is good for you to avoid all this sin and be a real Goddess Mother.”

The Goddess got enlightened, so she said to the Acharya, “You have enlightened, so she expressed her gratitude and said, “From today onwards no more such killings would be allowed. Now, I hate the very name of blood so no one should offer me even red flowers any more. From now onwards, I am a devotee of lord Mahaveera and, hence I would do good deeds for his sake. I would also fulfill all the prayers of my devotees.”

Acharya became very happy and said, “Now, you are a real mother, so from today on wards all of us will call you by the name of Shri Sachyaya Mata instead of Devi Chamunda.”

Creation Of Idol Of Lord Mahaveera

Devi Chamunda had realized that she had done lot of sins in her life so she must do some good things now.

There was a holy cow in the cemetery of the king. Its milk was very tasty. The king used to drink milk of this particular cow only. From that day onwards the cow used to leave its cemetery and reach to a sand-dune, and then her entire milk automatically got poured down from her four primates. This went on for many days.

One night when king Uppaldeo was in a relaxed mood he remembered that lately the taste of milk he was being given to drink was not so good. He immediately called the cook and enquired of the case it. On enquiry the cowman said that the cow was not giving milk. The king ordered him to keep a constant watch and find out the cause of it.

One night when king Uppaldeo was in a relaxed mood he remembered that lately the taste of milk he was being given to drink was not so good. He immediately called the cook and enquired of the case it. On enquiry the cowman said that the cow was not giving milk. The king ordered him to keep a constant watch and find out the cause of it.

On that auspicious day the king, prince, persons of Royal family, Ministers and few nobles of the city proceeded to that sand-dune with the Acharya. After chanting some mantras, the Acharay began to remove the sand slowly and slowly. A little deep inside, they were surprised to see a beautiful big idol of lord Mahaveera. Acharya declared that Goddess Sachyaya mata had made this holy idol of sand and milk.

Immediately a fine temple wads built under the surveillance of the Acharya. The Acharya declared that the consecration of the Diety in the temple would take place on Thursday the 15th day Maghshirsh Shukla of Veer sanwat70.

After a few days, some people of Korantpur came and urged on the Acharya that the people of Korantpur had built a Jain temple of lord Mahaveera with the advice of his Shramans. The day of consecration of the idol falls on Thursday the 5th day of Magshirsh Shukla of Veer sanwat 70. By chance, the auspicious occasion also fell on the same day. As per the custom the day of consecration could not be changed. Therefore, Acharya advised them to get the function performed and executed through a substitute. The people of Korantpurwere firm on getting the function executed only through honourable Acharya. Therefore, the Acharya had to give his consent. The Acharya installed the images of Lord Mahaveera at both the places (Youveshpur Pattan and Korantpur) on the same day and at the same time using his Vikriya Riddhi power (extending his powers far beyond.) It was a miracle, but it is true nonetheless. Petrograph at both the place are the proof of this miracle.

Opinion Of Bhats And Charans

All the historians are of the views that the origin of Oswals took place between 7th and 11th centuries. They also say that the new city of Osiyan was created between 7th and 11th centuries. They say that the first king of Osiyan was Uppaldeo Parmar. Gotra Parmar commenced in the 7th century Uppaldeo was the king of Kiradu. He had come from Kiradu and had established the town of Osiyan with the help of Padihar king of Mandore

Shri Suksampatraj Bhandari believes that Uppaldeo was a Parmar.

Col. Tod says that until 9th century that coins, utensils, etc., found in the Osiyan are of the 10th century.

Shri Gaurishankar Hirachand Ojha says that the temples of Osiyan were built in the 9th century.

Dr.D.R. Bhandarkar has said that the temples of Osiyan could date back to somewhere between 8th century and 11th century period.

Dr.D.R. Bhandarkar has said that the temples of Osiyan could date back to somewhere between 8th century and 11th century period.

Acharya Haribhadra Suri wrote in his Samraichi that the people of Youveshpur Pttan were free of Brahamins taxes. It means the city of Youveshpur in the 6th century. Acharya Haribhadra Suri’s period was V.S.757 to 857. From this it is clear that Uppaldeo was not Parmar, by caste.


The opinion of Bhats and the stories written by them are all fictitious. They proceed on the presumption that Uppaldeo was a Parmar, and that he went from Abu to Mandore in the shelter of Parihars and established a new kingdom Youveshpur with the support accepted Jainism, and that Uppaldeo Parihar accepted Jainism, and returned to Abu. However, there is no proof in support of all these stories. The Parmar caste originated in the8th century.Shri Sohanraj Bhansali also agrees to it. Shri Agrchand Nahta, however, says that the origin n of Oswals took place in V. 510 at Ratnasuri’s initiative. He has also said that Uppaldeo was not Parmar. Shri Agrachand Nahta writes that according to Upkesh-gachh Patawali and Upkesh-gachh Prabandh, the Origin of Oswals took place in Veer sanwat 70, i.e 400 years before Vikram.

The famous historian Munshi Deviprashad writes in his book “Rajputana-ki-sodh-khoj” that a petrography was found beneath the idol in the Jain temple of Aataru in Kota district. It is dated V.508. In it, the name of Bhamashah is mentioned. Bhamashah was of Adityanag-Choradia gotra. This proves that the gotra Choradia was a prominent gotra in the Oswal history of those times.

Opinions of Jain Monks and Bhats are more logical. Jain Shraman says that Osiyan had been founded by Uppaldeo 400 years before Vikaram Bhat says that Uppaldeo founded in V.S.222.

Mutha Nensi in his khyat has not mentioned specifically any year of origin of Oswals, but has only said that Uppaldeo was the 7th descendent of King Bhoj of Dhar State. According to him,the seven descendents were king Bhoj, king Vid, king Udaichand and kind Uppaldeo, but it appears that except Dhumrikh all the names are incorrect. In the pedigree of king Bhoj, Uppaldeo does not figure at all.

In the pedigree of Abu, king Purupal reigned somewhere between V.1009 to 1102 and Uppaldeo reigned 7 generations earlier. (Uppaldeo, Aranyaraj, Krishanyaraj, Aranyaraj, Mahipal Dhudhak, and Purnpal) figured between V.1009 to 1102. If one pedigree constitutes 25 years, then Uppaldeo’s period comes to be reckoned to be V.940. There is one petrograph Jodhpur fort, which mentions that Osiyan may have originated in V.940. However, there is no proof in support of the yearV.222.

According to petrography of Padihar king Bahul caste Parihar originated in the 7th century. In this petrograph, it is mentioned that Brahmin Harishchandra married a Rajput girl and their son was Padihar. Just as in case of Pawars, the origin of Padihar took place also from the fire-pond of Abu. However, this also does not appear to be true. In V.222, the word ‘Rajput’ was not in vague. They were all Kshatriyas.

According to Bhats, 18 persons who were converted to Mahajan sect by Acharya Ratnasprabh Suri. Were of following castes:-

Parmar, Sisodiya, Rathore, Solanki, Chauhan, Sankhla, Padihar, Boda, Dahiya, Bhati, Moyal, Goyal, Makvana, Kachhawah, God, Kherbad, Berad and Saurav.

The Pwar caste came in light in V.900. In V.222 there was no caste like Parmar. In the same way, none of the castes of above description existed in the history in V.222.

Dr.D.R. Bhandarkar says that Uppalseo demanded shelter from Padihar king of Mandore Padihar king ordered him take shelter at Bhelpur, which was in ruins. He wished Uppaldeo to go and develop the city. Uppaldeo went to develop it and it is this place in its developed shape that Osiyan of today is.

According to Upkeshgachh Pattavali Uppaldeo was Suryavanshi Bhinmal (Shrimal Pattan). However, Bhats say that Uppaldeo was a Parmar. The same view is held by Shri Sukhsdampatraj Bhandari, Muni Darshan Vijaiji, Mohnot Nensi, Agarchand Bhandwarlal Nahta, Shri Gorishankar Hirachand Ojha, Shri Jagdishsingh Gehlot, Shri Puranchand Nahar, and Dr.D.R Bhandarkar etc., who say that Uppaldeo was a Parmar.

In this way in order to establish antiquity of Osiyan, we must follow the literary base and ensure and affirm that the opinion of Acharya is correct. We may thus, conclude that Acharya Shri Ratnaprabh Suri the sixth Acharya of Bhagwan Parshvanath was the founder of Oswal caste.

Temples Of Osiyan

Now it is necessary to find out the antiquity of Osiyan. Many temple of Rajasthan are of Gupta age and amongst them Osiyan temple is one. In the excavations here many items of even the Stone Age were found. Dr. Dashrath Sharma has written in his book “Rajasthan through the Ages” that traces of another stone age, called the Microlithnic (on account of the tiny character of the tools used) have been found both on the flanks of eastern and western Rajasthan and so, believably such Microlithnic culture might have existed in the Sarswati reference in the connection, should be made to the Microliths unearthed in Ajmer, Tonk, Bhilwara, Chitorgarh, Pali, and Udaipur districts,and which have been brought to light, as also the Monoliths from Raigarh in Jipur district, from Umednahar in Tehsil Osiyan.” We can also say that of the later Gupta templed existing in Rajasthan. A mention may be made in this regard, of the templesd at Osiyan in Jodhpur. The temples of Osiyan have more importance from the point of views of the art of sculptures. The sculptural depictions at Osiyan includes Vasudeva with the baby Krishna, Yashoda Krishna, fight with horse, and bull demons, Murder of Putna, Kalidam, Goverdhandham, Stealing of butter etc. From the same gallery come some interesting images of Balram, which seem to represent him as an incarnation of Sheshnaga.

Dr.R.C.Agrawal has given a description of the Ardhanarishwar-image from Abaneri, Osiyan and Mena and has referred to the khandela inscriptions of V.701 (645 A.D.) which make a mention of the construction of temple of Ardhnarishwar.

At Osiyan, there is an image of the sun, with his waist tied with a scarf and the legs covered with long boots. Kubera and Ganpati flank Chandika on the pedestalof Pipladmatain Osiyan, and are involved with her in Sakarai inscription of V.749. The temples of Osiyan are superb in architectural style Beautiful portraiture of Navagrahas may also be seen in the Osiyan temple. In short, we can say that the Osiyan temples are a class of architecture and sculpture by themselves.

Osvani Is A Cultural Laboratory Of Jainism

Jainism is a non-communalistic cult and is against casteism, because it is not divided into ashrams or divisions as in the case of the Hindus. Jain Acharyas had converted violent people into non-violent. This process of converting continued from 2461 years ago i.e. from Veer Sanwat 70 to the 16th century. Jainsm believes that men are known by their work or karmas and not by their birth. Jainism had given birth to Oswals. It was a grand revolutionary act of our Acharyas. In the book ‘study of Jainism’ T.G. Kalghatgi writes “The Rishis who discovered the law of non-violence in the midst of violence were greater than Newton,”greater warriors than Wellington. Jain culture is a religious culture T.G. Kalghatgi, further writes “It is not the entire negation of empirical value, but only an assertion of the superiority of the spiritual over empirical value as a means of the realization of supreme values.” In Jainism, Samyak Charitra (moral life) is important as the pathway perfection. Mathew Arnold said that the Morality is the three fourth of life Samyak Charitra is the whole of life. In short, we can say that in the Jain conception of moral life of a Shravak, we find, the harmonious blending of the secular and spiritual. The secularism has not been neglected. It is a stepping-stone for the spiritual perfection.

In the process of converting the culture, Jainacharyas met the followersw of Hinduism and the Shevyas etc. Mostly they were kshatriya and then the Rajputs.

Origin Of Gotra In General

JAs per the vedic literature, there were eight Rishis (great saints) who formed the Gotras. They were Rishis Bhardwaj, Vishwamitra, Gautam, Jamdagni, Atri, Vashisht, Kashyap and August.

If we look at the history of Gotras we find that they were formed on the basis of place of birth, dynasty, business, profession or on the basis of name given by monks.

Origin Of Gotras In Oswals

Acharya Sri Ratna Prabh Suri in the year Veer Sanvat 70 converted Raja known as Utpaldev opf Upkeshpur Patten(presently Osiyan) and his entire subjects into Jainism. Accordding to ‘Jain Jati Mahodaya’ Acharya Shriji formed the following 18 Gotras. They were probably based on their original Gotras. The word Gotras, originally had several connotations viz, profession/ calling/ business/ status/ distinguishing traits or feature. It has come to ‘a third surname’ :-

  1. Tater Sancheti
  2. Bafna Aditya Nag
  3. Karnavat Bhuri
  4. Morakh Chnachat
  5. Kulahat Kumat
  6. Virhat Didu
  7. Shrishrimal Kannojia
  8. Shreshthi Lagushreshiti

All the above Gotras formed the Mahajans sect of Osiyan.. In V. 222 a big Mahajan community gathering was held at Khandela near Jaipur. On that occasion all Mahajan of Osiya were named as Oswal and all above Gotras became a part of Oswals.

According to yati Rupchanji’s “Jains Sampradaya Shiksha” the total number of Gotras of Oswals were 440. The myth goes that one Bhat had made a list of 1444 Gotras at that time but it is not available anywhere now. We have published a list of about 2700 Gotras and origin of more than 900 gotras in our web site ‘www.oswals.net’. According to Sri Muni Gyan Sunderji 498 Gotras were created out of these 18 Gotras in due course of time.